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Default A Look at the Karlani Dialects of Paktia and Wardak - For Haris - 06-24-2012, 03:55 PM

* This piece of writing contains the standard Pashto transcription as used by normal Pashtuns in place of IPA for ease of understanding.



The dialect of Wardag is very similar to the language of the Mangal, Zazi and Zadran. However, the way most Wardag speak is almost indistinguishable from the Zazi dialect. This dialect is spoken in Khost, Paktia and Kurram, where my grandmother's roots are.

I have lived in Parachinar for 3 years from 2003-2006 and during this time I was exposed to the Zazi, Mangal and Turi dialects which are all very similar to each other and to that of the Wardag, Afridi, Orokzai, Bangash and Zadran - all Karlani tribes, excluding the Wazir, Bannuchi, Khattak and Khostwal which are significantly more divergent than other Karlani dialects due to a more obvious vowel change, unique lexis and certain grammatical differences. One thing that sets the Wardag dialect apart from the rest of those mentioned, however, is the tendency of many (educated, upper-class) Wardags to incorporate Dari words into their speech.

The Karlani dialects all have some common features = the "aa" of other dialects becomes "o" or even "u". I do not know the reason for this, perhaps the mountain Karlani tribes have preserved the original Persian pronunciation of this phoneme as is evident in early Pashto borrowings from Persian, eg. The "Standard Pashto" change from the Persian "aa" to "o" in words like "khob" for "khwaab" and "khor" for "khwaahar".

Often similar changes occur in the pronunciation of words beginnning with "w" or a vowel so that they start with a "y" as in "wayam" [I say] = "yayam". Also, the final "m" in first person verb conjugations such as in the example above is not pronunced in many Karlani dialects and is replaced by a nasal "an" sound as in French.

Also worth noting is that no Karlani dialect has "zama" and "sta" for "mine" and "yours"; instead "de mo / e mo" and "de to / e to" are used. This is a sign of the Karlani dialects being archaic as "e mo" and "e to" or " de mo" and "de to" make more sense than "zma" or "sta", which appear to be contractions.

Because the "de" meaning "of" is often contracted to "e" in the Karlani dialetcs, it mirrors the Persian "ezafe" system, eg. "Khana-e-tu"= your house, literally house of you. Similarly in Pashto we say "e to kor", also meaning "house of you". Though obviously, Pashto and Perisan grammar differs greatly.

Many Zazi pronunce "ts" as "s" and "dz" as "z", especially those of Kurram and Khost. As far as I know, Wardags say "ts" and "dz". Another variation that can occur in the Zazi dialect is the use of the hard "kh" or "x" (as in "khamakha") in place of the softer "kh" (as in "khaar"/city). Sorry, its hard to explain this becuase both sounds are commonly transcribed using "kh".

Another potential difference is the fact that many Wardag say "mugh" instead of "mung", which is standard in Zazi of all three settlements; Maidan [Khost], Aryob [Paktia] and Kurma. Quite interstingly, this same merge of "gh" and "g/zh" also occurs in Northern Paktika/Southern Ghazni (mainly Sharan, Katawaz, Qarabagh, Andar and Muqur) which is Ghaljai territory.

As far as neighbouring Karlani dialects like Mangal and Zadran are concerned, in relation to Wardag and Zazi, they sound much more harsh although you will still understand them. Many words are specific to Karlani dialects or are used differently from other dialects, such as "tikala/atkala/tkala" for "dodaii" and "workai" for "halak". Also, "ghagedal/zhaghedal" is used in place of "khabare kawal" as this would sound strange to many rural Karlani (and Ghalji) Pashtuns. This is also true for Paktikawalan like me.

The area of Bermal is mainly inhabited by the Wazir and the Kharoti and I have never heard of any Wardags currently settled down there (Bermal is basically the one of the closest places to Wana from Afghanistan without crossing any borders), but if Marwats can migrate from Katawaz to Lakki, then surely Wardags can come from Bermal.

Now, that wretched table on Wikipedia has been tortured many a time. I was the one who edited it originally, but later other self-proclaimed "linguists" proceeded to f**** it all up with their own faulty data.

In that table, where it says "Zadran", the phonemes shown next to it are wrong. The Zadran dialect does not change "o" for "e" and "u" for "i" like the Waziri, Khostwal and Bannuchi do. I know this becuase the Zadran are our neighbours in Urgun.

Using the terms "Western" and "Eastern" Afghan dialects of Pashto is more suitable than using the misinformed, yet traditional "Southern"/"Northern"differentiation as Nangarhar is in the East and Kandahar is in the West. In Paktika, all dialects are mixed up and spoken at the same time. I have explained this before, I believe.

The phonemes [ç] and [ʝ] shown for many dialects on said table should be changed to [X] and [γ]/[g] as these paint a more accurate picture of the Pashto language.


Hakim Khan.

Last edited by Hakim Khan Urgonai; 06-24-2012 at 03:57 PM.
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Default 06-24-2012, 04:33 PM

Did you write this?


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A line[Durrand line] of hatred that raised a wall between the two brothers -Hamid Karzai

For generations, the Hindus of India prayed for deliverance from "the venom of the cobra, the teeth of the tiger and the vengeance of the Afghan."

The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns. The people of India call them Patán; but the reason for this is not known. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!

-Ferishta, 1560–1620
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Default 06-24-2012, 04:34 PM

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Originally Posted by Admin Khan View Post
Did you write this?
Yes, I did. It was at Haris' request and many thanks for correcting my username.


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Default 06-24-2012, 05:14 PM

"e to" means "your" not "of you" so "e to kor" means "your house."
turi and zazi dialects are almost the same.
I have noticed that the khost dialect switches the "o" sound with the "ai" sound so khostwalis would pronouces khost as khaist, kor as kair

you wrote a very nice piece about the subject
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Default 06-24-2012, 05:18 PM

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Originally Posted by حکیم خان اورګونی View Post
Yes, I did. It was at Haris' request and many thanks for correcting my username.
Dawa jhey sa.


Even Adobe Photoshop can't change me.

A line[Durrand line] of hatred that raised a wall between the two brothers -Hamid Karzai

For generations, the Hindus of India prayed for deliverance from "the venom of the cobra, the teeth of the tiger and the vengeance of the Afghan."

The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the Musulmáns of the Kohistán (the mountains), and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán; for there is nothing there but Afgháns and disturbances." Thus it is clear that for this reason the people of the country call their home in their own language Afghánistán, and themselves Afgháns. The people of India call them Patán; but the reason for this is not known. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, Musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!

-Ferishta, 1560–1620
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Default 06-24-2012, 05:34 PM

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Originally Posted by khushal View Post
"e to" means "your" not "of you" so "e to kor" means "your house."
turi and zazi dialects are almost the same.
I have noticed that the khost dialect switches the "o" sound with the "ai" sound so khostwalis would pronouces khost as khaist, kor as kair

you wrote a very nice piece about the subject

That is what I meant to say, but thank you for pointing it out.

Turi and Zazi are very similar, yes. The main difference between the two is that in the Turi dialect, they pronounce the phoneme "zh" as "j", like in many other dialects of Pashtunkhwa.

Most Wazirs and Bannuchis also exhibit this vowel change seen in the Khost dialect, thus "Parwa" (worry, concern) becomes "perwo" in Waziri, Khosti and Bannuchi.

Thanks for your comment.


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Default 06-24-2012, 05:35 PM

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Originally Posted by Admin Khan View Post
Dawa jhey sa.
Dera manana.


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Default 06-24-2012, 05:58 PM

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Originally Posted by shadowgoverner View Post
motha khistai pashto rozey.
za werzema ker ta che se kor me do/dai..
daltha za malgeryo sara nost yam,doeday/maray mo wakhwara.

was that correct?
It depends on which dialect you were trying to speak in.

In Zazi dialect:

"Mo ta khoista Pakhto rozi"

"Za kur ta drumam/warzema che tsa kor me dai"

"Delta za malgeryo sara nost yam, marai mo wokhura"


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Default 06-24-2012, 06:12 PM

Quote:
Originally Posted by حکیم خان اورګونی View Post
It depends on which dialect you were trying to speak in.

In Zazi dialect:

"Mo ta khoista Pakhto rozi"

"Za kur ta drumam/warzema che tsa kor me dai"

"Delta za malgeryo sara nost yam, marai mo wokhura"
The Zazi in khost speak the khost dialect. but the mountain folk would say:
delta za malgeryo saro sa nost yam. we add "sa" after "sara"
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Default 06-24-2012, 06:15 PM

warzema in zazi dialect is wartsema. the "tse" sound is used instead of "ze"

Last edited by khushal; 06-24-2012 at 06:46 PM.
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