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Default The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex - 10-21-2012, 09:08 PM

The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE, located in present day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya "

Relationship with Indo-Iranians

Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan migrations.

The Bactria-Margiana complex has attracted attention as a candidate for those looking for the material counterparts to the Indo-Iranians, a major linguistic branch that split off from the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Sarianidi himself advocates identifying the complex as Indo-Iranian, describing it as the result of a migration from southeastern Iran. Bactrian Margiana material has been found at Susa, Shahdad, and Tepe Yahya in Iran, but Lamberg-Karlovsky does not see this as evidence that the complex originated in southeastern Iran. "The limited materials of this complex are intrusive in each of the sites on the Iranian Plateau as they are in sites of the Arabian peninsula."[8]
Western archaeologists are more inclined to see the culture as begun by farmers in the Near Eastern Neolithic tradition, but infiltrated by Indo-Iranian speakers from the Andronovo culture in its late phase, creating a hybrid. In this perspective, Proto-Indo-Aryan developed within the composite culture before moving south into the Indian subcontinent.[14] As James P. Mallory phrased it It has become increasingly clear that if one wishes to argue for Indo-Iranian migrations from the steppe lands south into the historical seats of the Iranians and Indo-Aryans that these steppe cultures were transformed as they passed through a membrane of Central Asian urbanism. The fact that typical steppe wares are found on BMAC sites and that intrusive BMAC material is subsequently found further to the south in Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, India and Pakistan, may suggest then the subsequent movement of Indo-Iranian-speakers after they had adopted the culture of the BMAC.[20]

Interactions with other cultures

BMAC materials have been found in the Indus civilisation, on the Iranian plateau, and in the Persian Gulf.[8] Finds within BMAC sites provide further evidence of trade and cultural contacts. They include an Elamite-type cylinder seal and an Harappan seal stamped with an elephant and Indus script found at Gonur-depe.[12] The relationship between Altyn-Depe and the Indus Valley seems to have been particularly strong. Among the finds there were two Harappan seals and ivory objects. The Harappan settlement of Shortugai in Northern Afghanistan on the banks of the Amu Darya probably served as a trading station.[5]There is evidence of sustained contact between the BMAC and the Eurasian steppes to the north, intensifying c. 2000 BCE. In the delta of the River Amu Darya where it reaches the Aral Sea, its waters were channeled for irrigation agriculture by people whose remains resemble those of the nomads of the Andronovo Culture. This is interpreted as nomads settling down to agriculture, after contact with the BMAC. The culture they created is known as Tazabag'yad.[13] About 1800 BCE the walled BMAC centres decreased sharply in size. Each oasis developed its own types of pottery and other objects. Also pottery of the Andronovo-Tazabag'yab culture to the north appeared widely in the Bactrian and Margian countryside. Many BMAC strongholds continued to be occupied and Andronovo-Tazabagyab coarse incised pottery occurs within them (along with the previous BMAC pottery) as well as in pastoral camps outside the mudbrick walls. In the highlands above the Bactrian oases in Tajikistan, kurgan cemeteries of the Vaksh and Bishkent type appeared with pottery that mixed elements of the late BMAC and Andronovo-Tazabagyab traditions.[1










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Default 10-22-2012, 10:41 PM

This is really interesting...


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Default 10-22-2012, 11:25 PM

Black Sands (trailer) - YouTube
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Default 10-22-2012, 11:26 PM

^ one thing I notice is that (kalash) people also had a practice of not burying their dead and exposing the bodies, I wonder if there is any relations

also these people also drank (soma) drink which is mentioned in Rig Vedas
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Default 10-25-2012, 02:18 AM

This may be of topic, but the Ossetian people of Russia and Georgia, there language sounds so similar to Pashto. For example das in their language means the number 10 while "las" in our language means 10. After they are both classified as an eastern Iranian language.


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Default 10-25-2012, 03:25 PM

^ from what i have read Ossetian is closely related to pamiri language and pamiri is related to pashto. I think in ancient times there was a movement of people from south central asia towards the Caucasus region. Some people say Pamiri people went as far as eastern europe

btw (das) is also used in Sanskrit/urdu/hindi for 10. I think numbers are generally very similar in many indo european languages

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Default 10-29-2012, 10:39 PM

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Originally Posted by Karachi View Post
^ from what i have read Ossetian is closely related to pamiri language and pamiri is related to pashto. I think in ancient times there was a movement of people from south central asia towards the Caucasus region. Some people say Pamiri people went as far as eastern europe

btw (das) is also used in Sanskrit/urdu/hindi for 10. I think numbers are generally very similar in many indo european languages
Agreed. These people could very well be remants of Pashtun who migrated north. After all pashtuns were and still are a nomadic people who travel. I think the reason das is called 10 In Hindi is because of the language impact it from Pashto when the afghan soldiers of the durrani empire. Hindi is a mixed language which borrows words from other languages.


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