View Full Version : Abstract of my M-Phil research: as per promise


Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 12:37 AM
NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS AND IN SITU DIGESTION KINETICS OF GRASSES


Abstract

This study was conducted to ascertain the nutritional value, mineral profile, gross energy and in situ digestion kinetics of 10 different irrigated grasses (Malai grass/Blue Panic, Barru/Johnson grass, Mott grass, Khas Khas grass/Vetiver, Lemon grass, Dhaman grass/Bulled grass, Kallar grass, Rhodes grass, Khabal grass/Bermuda grass, Swank grass having botanical names as Panicum antidotale, Sorghum halepense, Pennisetum purpureum, Vetiveria zizanioides,Cymbopogon citrates, Cenchrus ciliaris,Leptochloa fusca,Chloris gayana, Cynodon dactylon, Panicum colunum respectively). The grasses were cut at pre-bloom stage and dried separately in forced air oven at 55Co for further analyses. After getting DM, the samples were analyzed for chemical value, mineral profile, gross energy and in situ digestion kinetics. The dry matter (DM) contents varied from 11.38% for C. gayana to 38.42% for V. zizanioides. Highest (14.28%) crude protein (CP) was observed for P. antidotale and lowest (7.90%) for P. colunum. The gross energy value of grasses ranged from 3654.28 Kcal/kg for P. antidotale to 2799 Kcal/kg for C. citrates. The C. gayana contained maximum Ca (4 g/kg DM), whereas, minimum (1.6 g/kg DM) Ca was noticed in C. ciliaris and C. dactylon. The value of Mg varied from 0.84 g/kg for L. fusca to 0.264 g/kg for C. ciliaris. Maximum Na was observed in L. fusca which was 10.5 g/kg while minimum Na was observed in V. zizanioides and C. citrates which was 2.5 g/kg DM. The amount of K varied from 27.2 g/kg to 11.6 g/kg (P. colunum to L. fusca respectively). Value of P ranged maximum in P. purpureum and C. gayana (0.59 g/kg DM) to C. ciliaris (0.14 g/kg DM). Highest DM digestibility value was observed for C. ciliaris (73.3%) while the lowest was for V. zizanioides (29.5%). Highest nutrient detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility value was observed for P. antidotale (67.96%) while the lowest was for L. fusca (27.37%). The data of the present study regarding DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ash, gross energy and mineral profile revealed that the nutritional value of grasses is worth if to feed the ruminants. The shorter lag time, faster rate of digestion and high extent of digestion further rank these grasses to feed ruminants for productive purposes. However, additional research is warranted to evaluate these grasses for secondary metabolites (Tannins, Saponins, total Phenolics and also Hydrocyanic acid) which are health hazards for ruminants.

Badlun
07-27-2010, 12:49 AM
Thanx for sharing . it seems that this section will now really become a corner for creative writers and those who want to share their research papers , reviews , abstracts and long write ups

I would like to now that what will be the practical applications of the findings of your research. How economically these grasses can be recommended as suitable for livestock and other animals and what about the avaialibility of these grasses in the normal farms or grazing lands in Pashtun areas of Afghanistan and Paistan. Once the nutritional value of these grasses is established as per your research when you say that The shorter lag time, faster rate of digestion and high extent of digestion further rank these grasses to feed ruminants for productive purposes, then how economically these are feasible to a common farmer.

Roshina
07-27-2010, 12:50 AM
Wow ...!

So the grass in the study was from one particular region, I presume, which would be...? I ask because I'm wondering if the energy of the grasses would vary from region to region. For instance, what role does the weather (e.g., humidity) play in how much DM the grasses have?

And I had no idea there were this many different types of grasses.

Now an irrelevant question just out of interest ... what do you study again?

Roshina
07-27-2010, 12:53 AM
Also, for those of us who are not all that aware of the implications of your study/research, do you mind explaining the significance of it to us? All research, all studies are equally important, none more important than others, in my opinion, but each one is important in its own way. And so I'm interested in the particular significance of this one. I find it fascinating that someone would be creative enough to come up with such a study 'cause I know it would never have crossed my mind at all.

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 06:59 AM
I would like to now that what will be the practical applications of the findings of your research.
The continuous increase in population urges the need to think about the existing livestock feed pool to meet animal requirements. It can be possible only due to optimum forage and fodder production. The main constraints which adversely affect the animal production in Pakistan are low quality fodder and the reduction in the fodder cultivation area. It is expected that in future, the ruminants will be more dependant on forages due to rapid expansion of human population which will have a direct completion with livestock in context of edible grains.
Increase in human population, decrease in the area under fodder cultivation, as there will be more load for farmers to produce cash crops such as Wheat, Rice, Sugar cane, Sunflower etc. The work on grasses is actually to find an alternative feed source for the livestock.
My present study has explored
1) The nutritional potential of grasses.
2) Their digestibility by in situ technique.


How economically these grasses can be recommended as suitable for livestock and other animals and what about the avaialibility of these grasses in the normal farms or grazing lands in Pashtun areas of Afghanistan and Paistan.
Recommendation for any fodder is primarily based upon the availability of Crude Protein (CP). High CP, high nutritional value and vice versa.
CP is most costly component of any Feed/Food. In grasses, no doubt, CP is lower as campared to legumenous fodders. But the important point of this study is that the availability. These grasses (except Mott grass, Rohdes grass, kallar grass) are easily available in whole Pakistan.
Most important point is, these grasses are present in abudance in khyber Pashtunkhwa....but point is that these are neglected class of forages.


Once the nutritional value of these grasses is established as per your research when you say that The shorter lag time, faster rate of digestion and high extent of digestion further rank these grasses to feed ruminants for productive purposes, then how economically these are feasible to a common farmer.
Economical significance can be implicated when due to any reason, a farmer does not have fodder to feed his livestock. These grasses are commonly available in range lands of Pakistan....so everyone can conduct his animals to these areas for grazing purposes.

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 07:01 AM
Wow ...!

So the grass in the study was from one particular region, I presume, which would be...? I ask because I'm wondering if the energy of the grasses would vary from region to region. For instance, what role does the weather (e.g., humidity) play in how much DM the grasses have?

And I had no idea there were this many different types of grasses.

Now an irrelevant question just out of interest ... what do you study again?

Qrratugai khorey, these are very less grasses which have been used in my research. There are lot more grasses untouched in Khyber Pashtunkhwa, trust me! We do not know, how to use these Non-Conventional Feed Resources for our animals. The grasses in my findings are taken from Punjab. But i know that 6/10 are commonly available in khyber pashtunkhwa.U all aware of Lemon grass, i know.Your 2nd Question is very technical MashaAllah. My question is "if I need a book from u which u do not have, how you 'll give that to me?" Most probably, u would not give that to me, bcz u urself do not have. Same is the case with lands. If a land does not have Nitrogen, the crops on that land will lack in CP (protein). Yes, these grasses have lot of variation in their nutritional value depends upon area, season of cut, stage of cut, water availability, fertilization of the land etc.The impact of weather is also variable. However, in winter, tissues are dormant, so CP value changes. I have found a paper on this topic. In that CP of a grass was 4% in winter wheras, it was 9% in Summer.I dont know the effect of weather on DM %age of grasses. You can find that from scholar.google.com or I can search it for you, if u need.

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 07:01 AM
Also, for those of us who are not all that aware of the implications of your study/research, do you mind explaining the significance of it to us? All research, all studies are equally important, none more important than others, in my opinion, but each one is important in its own way. And so I'm interested in the particular significance of this one. I find it fascinating that someone would be creative enough to come up with such a study 'cause I know it would never have crossed my mind at all.

As i have already mensioned in the reply of Osho.

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 07:04 AM
It really pleased me to find knowledgeable questions from you all.
Thank U all.

If you or anyone else has any other question regarding the above study, feel free to ask.

Manana

Badlun
07-27-2010, 12:46 PM
Thanks once again.

The problem in developing countries like Afghanistan and Pakistan is that first there is no Research at all and if there is any research it is not quality research, not creative but often cut and paste from other resources. But if by chance there is some good research like this one then it generally remains in books an dlibraries but not conveyed or extended to the user in this case the farmer or at least the progressive farmer.

Now my question is that whether you have shared your findings with the Agriculture Extension department or the Forest department or will you publish it in an Agriculture magazine. Will you be able to establsh a precedent of calling a press conference and will convey your findings to the print and electronic media. can you organize a joint session with farmers and Extension department officials and where you emphasize using these grasses as feed for animals.

Saifullah
07-27-2010, 12:57 PM
SOM so have you studied from agriculture university in Peshawar or some other place?

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 11:36 PM
^^ University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Son of Mountains
07-27-2010, 11:45 PM
Now my question is that whether you have shared your findings with the Agriculture Extension department or the Forest department or will you publish it in an Agriculture magazine. Will you be able to establsh a precedent of calling a press conference and will convey your findings to the print and electronic media. can you organize a joint session with farmers and Extension department officials and where you emphasize using these grasses as feed for animals.
This is our problem. Extension department exists, but trust me, that is not a wroking department. They just do paper work. Forest deparment is not relevent for my work.
As far as publication is concerned, we will have 2 international publications. Both in journals of good impact factor relating Veterinary sciences.
As far as farmer level is concerned, i know, i m unable to disseminate the results at farmer level completely. I can only do that my present job is to reach at different farms and train them towards modern dairy farming and help them financially for housing, nutrition n feeding, management, veterinary services, breeding policies, record keeping etc......So in my present job, i can disseminate the results of my findings at farmer level.
This is what i can do only.

Major problem in pakistan is the lack of co-ordination among the departments

Badlun
07-28-2010, 01:09 AM
Is forest department not involved in grass land management in Pakistan?

Cant you publish your research in some common magazine for agriculture purposes in the reach of farmers

If your research is not reached to farmer then was its purpose only having your degree or there can be any use of this research.

Cant you share or sell your research to some multinational, or some UN body, or some private company who can use your research for some productive purpose?

erlangner
07-28-2010, 03:23 AM
SOM, may I ask, from which university did you get your M.Phil degree? Thanks for sharing your work.

Son of Mountains
07-28-2010, 06:33 AM
Is forest department not involved in grass land management in Pakistan?
QUOTE]

Forest dept work for management of wildlife and ranges. My work actually comes under range management....

[QUOTE=osho;97840]Cant you publish your research in some common magazine for agriculture purposes in the reach of farmers


Yes, i ll publish it in local agricultural magazines inshaAllah, after international publications.

If your research is not reached to farmer then was its purpose only having your degree or there can be any use of this research.

Sadly n honestly, its answer is "yes". if you visit our library n theses section, you ll find a lot of beneficial researches there bound in a book called thesis. No use of them.....its sad. Its the major reason of our present deteriorated condition.


Cant you share or sell your research to some multinational, or some UN body, or some private company who can use your research for some productive purpose?
Its answer is again frustrating.......No body here works in this way. No company, no organisation.


Your all questions are rational wrora, but if there were coordination among the departments, today Pakistan would be a developed country on the world's map.....We have a lot of resources....but all are being wasted.

Son of Mountains
07-28-2010, 06:35 AM
SOM, may I ask, from which university did you get your M.Phil degree? Thanks for sharing your work.
Univ of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Saifullah
07-28-2010, 08:53 AM
Oh ok faisalabad, my uncle is dean in the peshawar agriculture...

Saifullah
07-28-2010, 10:49 AM
dean sa .matlab?

Dean is like a chairman but of a specific section of the university.

Like in medical university you have dean of physiology, dean of biochemistry etc