View Full Version : Kufr (APOSTASY) and its various kinds


شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 02:48 PM
Some members are complaining saying the use of words such as Kaafir and Murtad are inappropriate and offensive.

For those members, here is a short explanation of what Kufr is and when one can be considered a Kaafir.





Kufr and its various kinds

Praise be to Allaah. The reality of kufr and its various kinds is a lengthy topic, but we may sum it up in the following points:
1 – The importance of knowing what kufr is and the forms it may take:
The texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah indicate that faith is not valid and is not accepted unless two conditions are met – which are what are implied by the testimony that there is no god except Allaah. These two conditions are submission to Allaah alone (Tawheed), and denouncing and shunning all kinds of kufr and shirk.
A person cannot denounce or shun anything unless he knows what it is. From this we understand the importance of knowing what Tawheed is, so that we may act accordingly and attain Tawheed, and knowing what kufr and shirk is so that we may avoid them and steer clear of them.
2 – Definition of kufr:
Kufr in Arabic means covering and concealing something.
In shar’i terminology it means “not believing in Allaah and His Messenger, whether that is accompanied by denial or it is not accompanied by denial but rather doubt, or turning away from faith out of jealousy or arrogance, or because one is following whims and desires that prevent one from following the message. So kufr is the attribute of everyone who rejects something that Allaah has commanded us to believe in, after news of that has reached him, whether he rejects it in his heart without uttering it, or he speaks those words of rejection without believing it in his heart, or he does both; or he does an action which is described in the texts as putting one beyond the pale of faith.” See Majmoo’ al-Fataawa by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, 12/335; al-Ihkaam fi Usool al-Ahkaam by Ibn Hazam, 1/45.
Ibn Hazam said in his book al-Fasl: “Rejecting something for which there is sound proof that there can be no faith without believing in it is kufr, and uttering words for which there is proof that uttering them is kufr is kufr. Doing any action for which there is proof that it is kufr is also kufr.”
3 – Kinds of major kufr which put one beyond the pale of Islam
The scholars divided kufr into a number of categories, under which they listed many forms and kinds of shirk. These are as follows:
-1- The kufr of denial and rejection. This kufr may sometimes take the form of disbelief in the heart – which occurs rarely among the kuffaar, as Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said – and sometimes it takes the form of outward or apparent rejection, which means concealing the truth and not submitting to it outwardly, whilst recognizing it and knowing it inwardly, such as the Jews’ rejection of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Allaah says of them (interpretation of the meaning):
“then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it”[al-Baqarah 2:89]
He also said (interpretation of the meaning]:
“then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it”
[al-Baqarah 2:146]
That is because rejection only happens which a person knows the truth and refuses it. Hence Allaah stated that the kuffaar’s disbelief in the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not disbelief in the true sense of the word, because their disbelief was only outward and verbal, and inwardly they recognized the truth.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“it is not you that they deny, but it is the Verses (the Qur’aan) of Allaah that the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) deny”
[al-An’aam 6:33]
“And they belied them (those Ayaat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their ownselves were convinced thereof”
[al-Naml 27:14]
Similar to this is the kufr of permitting that which is forbidden. Whoever regards as permissible something which he knows that Islam has forbidden has disbelieved in the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and in that which he brought. The same applies to one who forbids something which he knows that Islam has permitted.
-2- The kufr of turning away in arrogance, such as the kufr of Iblees of whom Allaah said:
“… except Iblees (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allaah)”
[al-Baqarah 2:34 – interpretation of the meaning]
And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They (hypocrites) say: ‘We have believed in Allaah and in the Messenger (Muhammad), and we obey,’ then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers”
[al-Noor 24:47]
So Allaah has stated that those who do not act in accordance with faith are not believers, even if they utter the words of faith. The kufr of turning away means that one ignores the truth and does not learn it or act in accordance with it, whether it is the matter of words, actions or beliefs. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned”[al-Ahqaaf 46:3]
Whoever turns away verbally from that which the Messenger has brought is like one who says “I will not follow him.” The one who turns away by his actions is like one who runs away from hearing the truth which he brought, or puts his fingers in his ears so as not to hear, or who hears it but turns away in his heart and refuses to believe, and who refuses to act upon it. He has disbelieved in the sense of the kufr of turning away.
-3- The kufr of hypocrisy. This takes the form of not believing in the heart and not acting, whilst submitting outwardly in order to show off to people. This is like the kufr of Ibn Salool and the other munaafiqeen (hypocrites) of whom Allaah said (interpretation of the meaning):
“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: ‘We believe in Allaah and the Last Day,’ while in fact they believe not.
They (think to) deceive Allaah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!
In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allaah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.
And when it is said to them: ‘Make not mischief on the earth,’ they say: ‘We are only peacemakers.’
Verily, they are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.
And when it is said to them (hypocrites): ‘Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad, Al-Ansaar and Al-Muhajiroon) have believed,’ they say: ‘Shall we believe as the fools have believed?’ Verily, they are the fools, but they know not.
And when they meet those who believe, they say: ‘We believe,’ but when they are alone with their Shayaateen (devils — polytheists, hypocrites), they say: ‘Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking.’
Allaah mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doing to wander blindly.
These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided.
Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allaah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see.
They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path).
Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allaah ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allaah will gather them all together).
The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allaah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allaah has power over all things”
[al-Baqarah 2:8-20]
-4- The kufr of doubt, which means hesitating with regard to following the truth and being uncertain as to whether it is true, because what is required is certainty of faith (yaqeen) that what the Messenger brought is truth with no hint of doubt in it. Whoever thinks that what he brought may not be true has disbelieved, in the sense of kufr of doubt, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And he went into his garden while in a state (of pride and disbelief), unjust to himself. He said: ‘I think not that this will ever perish.
And I think not the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, (on the Day of Resurrection), I surely, shall find better than this when I return to Him.’
His companion said to him during the talk with him: ‘Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out of dust (i.e. your father Adam), then out of Nutfah (mixed semen drops of male and female discharge), then fashioned you into a man?
But as for my part, (I believe) that He is Allaah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord.’”
[al-Kahf 18:35-38]
From this we may conclude that kufr – which is the opposite of eemaan or faith – may take the form of feelings in the heart, such as hating Allaah or His signs, or His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him); this contradicts love and faith which support the actions of the heart. Kufr may also take the form of spoken words, such as insulting Allaah, or it may be an outward action, such as prostrating to idols, or offering sacrifices to someone other than Allaah. Just as faith takes the form of actions of the heart, words on the tongue and outward physical actions, so too kufr may take the form of actions of the heart, words on the tongue and outward physical actions. We ask Allaah to keep us safe from kufr and its branches, and to increase us in faith and make us guided and cause us to guide others… Ameen. And Allaah knows best.
See A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 177; Nawaaqid al-Eemaan al-Qawliyyah wa’l-‘Amaliyyah by Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez Aal ‘Abd al-Lateef, 36-46; Dawaabit al-Takfeer by Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah al-Qarani, 183, 196.


Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid








Guidelines on takfeer (ruling someone to be a kaafir)

Praise be to Allaah. Firstly:
Determining whether someone is a kaafir or a faasiq (faasiq) is not up to us, rather it is up to Allaah, may He be exalted, and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). This is one of the rulings of sharee’ah that is to be referred to the Qur’aan and Sunnah, so we should be very careful and base our judgement on clear proof. No one may be judged to be a kaafir or faasiq except the one whom the Qur’aan and Sunnah indicate is a kaafir or faasiq.
The basic principle is that the one who appears outwardly to be a Muslim of good character is regarded as still being a Muslim of good character, until it is proven that this is no longer the case by means of evidence that is acceptable in sharee’ah. It is not permissible to take lightly the matter of judging someone to be a kaafir or faasiq, because that involves two very serious matters:
1 – It implies fabricating lies against Allaah with regard to this ruling, and fabricating lies against the one who is being judged.
2 – Falling into that which one accused one’s brother of, if he is free from that.
In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (6104) and Saheeh Muslim (60) it is narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If a man declares his brother to be a kaafir, it will apply to one of them.” According to another report: “Either it is as he said, otherwise it will come back to him.”
Secondly:
Based on this, before ruling that a Muslim is a kaafir or a faasiq, two things must be examined:
1 – The evidence of the Qur’aan or Sunnah that this word or this action implies that a person is a kaafir or a faasiq.
2 – Applying this ruling to a specific person who says or does that thing, such that the conditions of judging a person to be a kaafir or faasiq will be met in his case, and there are no impediments.
Among the most important of these conditions are the following:
1 – That he should be aware of his transgression that renders him a kaafir or faasiq, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell — what an evil destination!”
[al-Nisa’ 4:115]
“And Allaah will never lead a people astray after He has guided them until He makes clear to them as to what they should avoid. Verily, Allaah is the All-Knower of everything”
[al-Tawbah 9:115]
Hence the scholars said that a person who denies obligatory duties should not be judged to be a kaafir if he is new in Islam, until that has been explained to him.
2 – A reason why he cannot be ruled to be a kaafir or faasiq is if he does something that incurs such a judgement involuntarily. This may take several forms such as:
For example, he may be forced to do that, so he does that because he is forced to, not because he accepts that. He is not a kaafir in that case, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Whoever disbelieved in Allaah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith; but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allaah, and theirs will be a great torment”
[al-Nahl 16:106]
Another example is when he is not thinking straight, so he does not know what he is saying because of extreme joy or sorrow or fear and so on. The evidence for that is the report narrated in Saheeh Muslim (2744) from Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah rejoices more over the repentance of His slave when he repents to Him than one of you who was on his mount in the wilderness, then he lost it, and his food and drink are on it, and he despairs of finding it. He goes to a tree and lies down in its shade, having lost hope of finding his mount, and whilst he is like that, there it is standing in front of him, so he takes hold of its reins and says, because of his intense joy, ‘O Allaah, You are my slave and I am your lord,’ making this mistake because of his intense joy.”
3 – Misinterpetation. He may have some confusion and some misinterpretation that he adheres to, thinking that it forms evidence for his beliefs, or he may not be able to understand and comprehend shar’i evidence and proof in the proper way. Therefore, judging someone to be a kaafir is not valid except in the case of one who deliberately goes against the shar’i evidence and who knows that he is wrong.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allaah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful”
[al-Ahzaab 33:5]
Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (23/349):
Imam Ahmad (may Allaah be pleased with him) prayed for mercy for them (i.e., the caliphs who were influenced by the view of the Jahamis who claimed that the Qur’aan was created, and supported it) and prayed for forgiveness for them, because he knew that it was not clear to them that they were disbelieving the Messenger and denying what he had brought, rather they misinterpreted and erred, and followed those who said that to them. End quote.
And he (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (12/180):
With regard to takfeer (judging someone to be a kaafir), the correct view is that a member of the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who strives to reach the truth concerning a certain issue, but reaches the wrong conclusion, is not to be deemed a kaafir, rather he will be forgiven for his mistake. But the one who understands the message brought by the Messenger, but deliberately goes against the way of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) after true guidance has become clear to him, and follows a path other than that of the believers, is a kaafir. The one who follows his whims and desires and fails to seek the truth and speaks without knowledge is a disobedient sinner, and may be a faasiq, but he may have some good deeds that outweigh his bad deeds. End quote.
And he (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: (3/229):
However, and those who sit with me know this about me, I am always one of those who most emphatically forbid describing a specific person as a kaafir, faasiq or sinner, unless it is known that shar’i proof has been established against him, and it has been proven whether he is a kaafir, a faasiq or a sinner. I affirm that Allaah has forgiven this ummah for its mistakes, which includes mistakes in narrative and practical issues. The salaf continued to debate many of these issues but none of them testified that anyone else was a kaafir or a faasiq or a sinner.
He mentioned some examples, then he said:
I also state that what has been narrated from the salaf and the imams, stating that the one who says such and such is a kaafir, is also true, but it is essential to differentiate between general rules and specific cases.
… Takfeer is a kind of warning; even though the words may be a rejection of what the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, the man may be new in Islam, or he may have grown up in a remote region. Such a person cannot be ruled to be a kaafir, no matter what he denies, unless proof has been established against him. The man may not have heard of those texts, or he may have heard them but they were nit proven to him , or he may have some ideas that are contrary to what he heard, that med him to misinterpret the text.
I always remember the hadeeth in al-Saheehayn, which speaks of the man who said: “ ‘When I die, burn me and crush (my bones), then scatter me in the sea, for by Allaah, if Allaah grasps hold of me He will punish me as He has not punished anyone else in the world.’ They did that, and Allaah said: ‘What made you do what you did?’ He said: ‘Fear of You.’ And He forgave him.”
This man doubted the power of Allaah and doubted that He would restore him if his remains were scattered; rather he believed that he would not be resurrected, which is kufr according to the consensus of the Muslims. But he was ignorant and did not know about that; however, he was a believer who feared that Allaah would punish him, so He forgave him because of that.
One who is qualified to engage in ijtihaad and who bases his incorrect notion on some misinterpretation of some text but is sincere in his keenness to follow the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is even more deserving of forgiveness than such a person. End quote.
(Based on Khaatimah al-Qawaa’id al-Muthla by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him).)
Because the matter of takfeer is so serious, and mistakes therein are so grave, the seeker of knowledge, especially if he is a beginner, should refrain from indulging in that, and he should focus on acquiring beneficial knowledge that will set his own affairs straight in this world and the Hereafter.
Thirdly:
Before we suggest some books to you, we should advise you to seek knowledge directly from scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah, because that is the easiest and safest way; but that is subject to the condition that the one from whom you learn is trustworthy in terms of his knowledge and religious commitment and following of the Sunnah, and in avoidance of whims and desires and innovations.
Muhammad ibn Sireen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This knowledge is the (foundation of) religion, so watch from whom you learn your religion. Narrated by Muslim in the Introduction to his Saheeh.
If it is not possible where you are to attend lessons given by scholars, then you can make use of their tapes, as it has become easy to obtain them on CDs and websites, praise be to Allaah. You can also benefit from some seekers of knowledge who are keen to acquire shar’i knowledge and follow the Sunnah; hardly any place is without such people, in sha Allaah.
Fourthly:
Books which you should strive to acquire and study include the following:
Tafseer: Tasfeer Ibn Sa’di; Tafseer Ibn Katheer.
Hadeeth: al-Arba’een al-Nawawiyyah (al-Nawawi’s 40), with a commentary thereon; al-Ihtimaam bi Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa’l-Hukam by Ibn Rajab; Riyaadh al-Saaliheen – you may pay special attention to this blessed book, and you can also learn from the commentary thereon by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him).
‘Aqeedah: Study Kitaab al-Tawheed by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab, with its commentary; al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah; some other useful essays on this topic such as Tahqeeq Kalimat al-Ikhlaas by Ibn Rajab and al-Tuhfah al-‘Iraaqiyyah fi’l-A’maal al-Qalbiyyah by Ibn Taymiyah.
You can also benefit from Zaad al-Ma’aad by Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) and many of his other books such as al-Waabil al-Sayyib and al-Da’ wa’l-Dawa’.
This is a start. If you study these books, especially if there is someone who can help you to read and understand them, then you can move on to other books, in sha Allaah.
And Allaah knows best.


Islam Q&A

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 04:20 PM
After the Rightly Guided Caliphate, the Muslim world became entangled in a web where whenever someone disagreed with another's view the only way to suppress his opposition was by calling that person a kafir.

This type of attitude has not helped Islam. This is why we are so divided.

There is no example in the lifetime of Hadhrat Muhammad (saw) where he declared someone who called himself or herself a Muslim a kafir.

Dear brother, be careful. You calling someone a kafir will not bring a change in that person. Have patience and try to convince that person with love and tenderness. :)

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 04:27 PM
So if you tell lies against Allah and his messenger we should still consider you as a Muslim? hahaha

I am not saying you are kaafir. But as you have been able to read above, one who rejects the messege because of arrogance or deliberately continues to tell lies against allah and his messenger is clearly a kaafir.

ANd if you do so because of your ignorance it is pardoned by ALlah.

BUt that does not mean that we as Muslims should not point out when-ever you are making statements that can lead you out of the fold of Islam.

In fact, it is obligatory on Muslims to guide others and correct other Muslims mistakes. Especially if their mistake is so grave that it could lead them out of the fold of Islam.

And that is what is the situation right now. You risk stepping out of the fold of Islam by lying against Allah and his messenger by promoting a fabricated hadith.

And I am just helping you. And instead of being greatful, look at what you are doing.

This is arrogance and bigotry.

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 04:43 PM
Actually, you are not helping me brother. You are just bashing me. You want to convince me that love of your homeland is not part of faith when you yourself are indirectly saying it is true.

If you said:

[N]obody is arguing that loving your nation contradicts Qur'an. In fact, loving your nation is natural. Something you are born with.


Is not Islam something the fits the natural needs of man? Hence, what did I say different? If Islam does not contradict the natural state of man, fitrah, then how can love for your nation, homeland, not be part of faith?

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 04:45 PM
Actually, you are not helping me brother. You are just bashing me. You want to convince me that love of your homeland is not part of faith when you yourself are indirectly saying it is true.

If you said:


Is not Islam something the fits the natural needs of man? Hence, what did I say different? If Islam does not contradict the natural state of man, fitrah, then how can love for your nation, homeland, not be part of faith?
hahaha!

You are also born with the natural desire to defecate. Does that also become part of your faith?

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 05:08 PM
Actually, Islam has taught us how to properly clean ourselves after going to the washroom. Islam has told us to go the washroom before we enter prayers.

In the case you presented Islam guides to deal with this natural phenomenon because cleanliness is part of faith.

Islam recognized the natural needs of man and has given guidance on how to deal with it.

We are told to defend our homeland because the love of your homeland is part of faith.

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 05:10 PM
Actually, Islam has taught us how to properly clean ourselves after going to the washroom. Islam has told us to go the washroom before we enter prayers.

Islam recognized the natural needs of man and has given guidance on how to deal with it.
Don't try to divert and dodge the question.

You said, that if it is fitrah then it must be faith since true monotheism is also in fitrah.

I asked you, defecating is also in fitrah, does that make it faith as well?

ANswer!

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 05:11 PM
I edited my post.

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 05:13 PM
Cleanness is part of faith. BUt not the natural desire of defecating.

You have not answered the question.

The urge to defecate, is it also part of faith?

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 05:16 PM
It is part of faith to defecate before praying, otherwise, you will be distracted.

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 05:20 PM
It is part of faith to defecate before praying, otherwise, you will be distracted.
You are dodging and diverting again.

Stick to the question. Man is born with natural desire to defecate. Following your reasoning regarding love for ones nation, is desire to defecate also part of faith.

Don't try to divert the question.

If you are truthful, stick to the question.

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 05:35 PM
Sangar Jana, you are comparing apples and oranges. Going to the washroom is something that would be embarrassing and sloppy if not done when the need arises. However, Islam has teachings telling us how to deal with it.

Let me give you a better example, which fits along the same line of logical reasoning of "Is defending your homeland part of faith? "

See not everyone defends their lands; however everyone goes to the bathroom.

See not everyone is obligated to pray funeral prayers for a deceased, but it is part of faith to pray funeral prayers for a deceased.

So you using going to the bathroom as an example does not fall along the same line of logic. You are comparing apples and oranges.

We have to be told to love our homeland; otherwise, how would you defend something you don't love?

If you live in America you should love America; otherwise you will not care about its laws and the progress of the country. You would cheat the government and you could careless if it got destroyed. It would be hypocritical to live somewhere peaceful take advantage of all the goodness and not love that land.

So, if Islam makes love of your homeland part of faith, then people would have guidance with respect to the land they live in. Hence, defend it.

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 05:43 PM
You are just arguing for the sake of argument.

MeemWawMeemNoon
05-18-2010, 06:02 PM
Sorry to say, but you have a blind faith. You and the Christian who believes that God is Jesus are not different, in terms of your faith.

شمله ور خراساني
05-18-2010, 06:12 PM
Sorry to say, but you have a blind faith. You and the Christian who believes that God is Jesus are not different, in terms of your faith.
You cant provide evidence and I have blind faith. RIght. hahah

شمله ور خراساني
08-14-2010, 07:40 PM
bump