View Full Version : Tajweed Lesson Four: Makhraj al Lisaan

01-01-2011, 09:43 AM
This is a continuation of our previous lesson on the general makhraj of some of the letters, bearing in mind that we haven’t yet covered the entire alphabet.

What does Makhraj al Lisaan mean?
Makhraj al Lisaan refers to the articulation points of the tongue. The tongue, in terms of where the sound of the letters comes from, is divided into ten unique parts, as opposed to the throat (previous lesson) which has three. Below is an outline of the letters and how they are pronounced.

1. Lowest part – qaa/ق – further part up to the soft palate, right above the throat.

2. Highest part –kaa/ك – second further part up to the hard palate.

3. Middle – gaa ج /sha ش /yaa ى – entire middle portion. These letters are not common to make mistakes in as they are common to most languages.

4. Edge of the tongue – dhaa/ض – this is the most difficult letter in the Arabic alphabet and it is pronounced on the one edge of one’s tongue connected with the upper molar teeth. Most people do it from the left part, some from the right and very few are skilled at pronouncing it from both sides.

5. Front and behind the canines – laa/ل – Again, a common letter with few mistakes.

6. Tip of the tongue connected to the molars behind the canines – naa/ن – Common to many languages.

7. Tip of the tongue with gums behind the upper teeth – raa/ر – the most common mistake with this letter is that it is confused with the English ‘R’. Another mistake is that the letter is rolled in the tongue. This shouldn’t happen. Examples will be provided in the audio.

8. Tip of the tongue and upper portion with the gums behind the incisors – daa د / ttaa ط /taa ت

9. Tip of the tongue as it connects with the gum and the incisors but with a slight gap – saa س /ssao ص /zaa ز

10. Upper surface of the tongue and the outside incisors – tha ث /dha ذ /dhao ظ

I hope this has cleared some misunderstandings and has been of benefit. Be sure to ask questions. I will report back with a suitable audio InshaAllah. And a heads up on the next few lessons, they will be quite different to the past few, in that we will begin the actual introduction of the rules and complete the pronunciation of letters InshaAllah. I'd appreciate feedback, either private or public. Do not hesitate to ask any questions, as no question is too small and everyone can benefit.


Admin Khan
01-01-2011, 07:24 PM

Thank you for your valuable lesson.

01-01-2011, 07:44 PM
The teacher title is a bit too big for my shoes. You're most welcome Admin Khan.

Jasmineh, I am so happy to hear that. I used to do the same with my own notes (from my own teacher) when I first started Tajweed lessons. I would leave my Tajweed notebook open alongside the Quran and it helps a lot as you're applying the rules as you learn them.

All, I will be posting some questions shortly to test our understanding. I will appreciate some feedback, either private or public.